Monday, July 27, 2009

Record management in Malaysia and others country

By Khairul Izzuan Bin Ahmad

1.0 The Act of Record management of Malaysia and other country especially for Preservation programmed.

Rules include act, guide and decision that have been done by organization or country and must followed by everybody. With the rules has been established will makes the field are secured and avoid the miss used and also will avoid the criminal happen. In this section will discuss the act of Record management of Malaysia in focused of National Archive of Malaysia with other develop country. Are Malaysia is followed the standard rules same with another country or not? That will answer in this section.

Before we go further to discuss about this topic we must know the main purpose of rules established. According to Pengenalan Kepada Pengurusan Rekod dan Sistem fail by Savumthararj.G in pages 175, author was describe that rules established for avoid the disposed of record in non legal way, Avoiding the lost of record whether by theft and so on, Avoiding copying information in non legal way, preserved those record have permanent value and as heritage of country and ensure records are handle as good as possible.

1.1 Avoiding disposed of record in non legal way.
Rules that have been created by country or organization will makes the record are not disposed in non legal way. As known, the disposed of record in non legal way will makes great lost for the country or organization. Beside that also will makes the authority of the country will lost when the matters include in the international cases. For an example The lost of Pulau Batu Putih to Singapore must give the lessons to the country.

The act have be established by National of Malaysia that have written in Act of Arkib Negara Malaysia 2003, that call any public record cannot be disposed without permission of National Archive of Malaysia. For the comparison with another country is National Archive of New Zealand, According to the National Archive of New Zealand, in their act is Under the public records Act 2005, no one may dispose of any public record without authorization form the chief Archivist. It could be transferred to Archives New Zealand or to some other archiving situation.(National Archive of New Zealand).

From the statement given can say the act in Malaysia in order to keep the record especially those record have value is same standard with another country. Beside that the preservation of record that have value especially permanent value can be done successfully and will give the opportunity for country to improve the national quality same with another develop country.

1.2 Preservation those records have permanent value.
Rules that have been created by country will make the heritage of country can preserved for long time, according to Act of Archive of Malaysia 2003, said any public record not current that in opinion of Director of National Archive have national value or permanent history value and old or both of them must be transfer to the National Archive and keep by National Archive of Malaysia.

That same with the develop country like United State of America, in their act about preservation those records have permanent value they said that :
“When it appears to the Archivist to be in the public interest, he may--
(1) accept for deposit with the National Archives of the United States the records of a Federal agency, the Congress, the Architect of the Capitol, or the Supreme Court determined by the Archivist of the United States to have sufficient historical or other value to warrant their continued preservation by the United States Government;
(2) direct and effect the transfer to the National Archives of the United States of records of a Federal agency that have been in existence for more than thirty years and determined by the Archivist of the United States to have sufficient historical or other value to warrant their continued preservation by the United States Government, unless the head of the agency which has custody of them certifies in writing to the Archivist that they must be retained in his custody for use in the conduct of the regular current business of the agency. (The national archive of United State)
Beside that according to National Archive of British in their Public Act 1958 describe the act of preservation of records that have value will keep in their archive, that will be improved by their act as below :
“(1) It shall be the duty of every person responsible for public records of any description which are not in the Public Record Office or a place of deposit appointed by the Lord Chancellor under this Act to make arrangements for the selection of those records which ought to be permanently preserved and for their safe-keeping.
(2) Every person shall perform his duties under this section under the guidance of the Keeper of Public Records and the said Keeper shall be responsible for co-coordinating and supervising all action taken under this section.
(3) All public records created before the year sixteen hundred and sixty shall be included among those selected for permanent preservation.” (National archive of British)
From the statement given, the act has been established by Malaysia is same standard with another develop country, that’s because each of country in this world will keep the record that have value for their country authority

Disaster planning is very important to make sure the organization are prepared when disaster comes, as known disaster we cannot predict and must aware about the disaster comes. From that planning disaster must be created to makes sure records that preserve can permanently use for long term. Before that, what is a disaster planning, as discusses about disaster planning previous, disaster planning can be define as document that explain procedures for avoid disaster, prepared while disaster, action must been taken while disaster and also the action of recovery after disaster( according to Pengenalan Kepada Pengurusan Rekod dan system Fail by Savumthararj.G)
After we know what is disaster plan, we must know why disaster plan is very important to record management and also the preservation program. Planning is very important to avoid the disaster happen, reduce of broken of material that effects after disaster, also take the quick action for recovery record those have broken.
Now, the next focus, will discuss about the focus area, comparison between Malaysia and other develop country. National Archive of Malaysia has established disaster planning to avoid the record their preserve are not broken and safe for future used. National Archive of Malaysia has plan before disaster happen, while disaster happen and also after disaster happen. The activity before disaster is ensuring all record custody are secure and protected by camera, ensuring temperature, humidity, light are suitable in record custody and so on. The activity while disaster happen is, have list of important telephone number like police, fire bridged and so on. Have emergency procedures and list of important thing like what must be save first. Plan after disaster is activate teams that responsible for save the record, ensuring disaster area save to enter, evaluate the lost cost and make research again about planning disaster.
After we know what the planning disaster that have been done by Archive National of Malaysia, we compare disaster planning that have be done by National Archive of United state of America in Disaster Preparedness for Records Manager Toolkit that have been distributed by National Archive of United State. In this tool kit, the planning they do is same with Malaysia and the information about that tool kit like below:

1. Table of Contents
2. Introduction
3. Approvals
4. Organizational Notification
5. Records Holdings
a. Recovery priority of original records on hand
b. Vital Records information
6. Response Action Checklists
7. Supplies and Equipment
8. Vendor, Expert, and Contractor Information
9. Salvage and Recovery Procedures
10. Appendices:
a. Phone Tree
b. Medical, utility, emergency responder information
c. Floor Plans & diagrams
d. Test and Exercise Schedule and Scenarios
e. Plain Maintenance Instructions
f. Mitigation/Prevention actions
g. Safety/Evacuation procedures
h. Post-disaster information
i. Information Technology
(Disaster Preparedness for Records Manager Toolkit by Natioanal Archive of United State)

From that, the preservation activity in Malaysia is same standard like Develop country. And from that also, that’s shows Malaysia also deep realize that record are important, and must be preserved for long time for the next generation purpose and also to makes sure the authority of country can be defend forever.

digital archive

By Khairul Izzuan Bin Ahmad


In this era of technology and globalization, computers have their role to help human to do their job at any field. With the system database, the record can be easy access and also easy to retrieve it. Computer technology also help people make their record is preserve in long term time and that record can become the important document to be a evidence when unexpected cases happened. With this awareness, archives as general that have the role to preserve the higher value document like manuscript, agreement letter and another things, must use this computer technology opportunity to improve their duty to preserve the document and record. One of them where archive institution can make with computer technology is establish the digital archive via the internet or website. Based from these many national archive in the world have established their digital archive by using World Wide Web, for an example The National Archives of Australia and many European countries have developed their web sites. Like Archive of Australia have web site that available on internet and provides information and link archives and manuscript collections in Australia.

In this report will view the definition of digital archive, the features of digital archive, benefit and advantages of digital archive, problem and challenger in digital archive with solution.


Digital archive is the service of archive via the World Wide Web technology. This digital archive is more efficient and easy to access and retrieve the archive material in main archive institution.

Digital archive also called digital preservation refer to long term storage, preservation and access to digital information.(Gail Hodge and Bonnie C. Carroll Information International Associates, Inc)


All thing in the world have their own characteristic, these characteristic will help us to more understanding the topic we discuss. It same in digital archive, also have their own characteristic or features. The features of digital archive based from OCLC is Two archiving method, standard based system, all format accepted, configurable option, administrative action, complete perseveration metadata, data check and process report.

First is two archiving method, from OCLC, it is mean use a web interface to capturing web pages or window program that builds ready-to-archive packages from owner digitized image. Based from this, make user easily to submit materials to the system in two ways by using Web archiving for selection and preservation of HTML pages and their components and batch archiving for collection-based archiving of resources already saved onto other media.

Secondly is standard based system. Means digital archive based to the OAIS (Open Archival Information System) reference Model ISO standard and for information archiving as well as the METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard). Metadata schema. With this standard system, make user easily to communicate with the system and not have to learn the new topic to using the system.

Thirdly is All format are accepted, with this also can make user more easily to using the digital archive such as format in the mp3 for music or sound record, JPG for picture or image, Adobe Reader for read the article and other writing. With this all format are available in digital archive, can give user more interest to using digital archive. Next is configurable option or configurable access, means the owner of material held in the digital archive can controlling and decide who can access their archived object by using administrator module. From that can make their authority is preserved and have their own right for their material.

Next of the feature by OCLC is administrative action, with this administrative action can make owner or user to update metadata, conduct their own quality checks, organize content into collections or create end-user access groups. From this also can make user are easily to handling their digital archive.

Complete preservation metadata means digital archive records consist of a fully developed set of preservation metadata elements that was developed in consultation with users. Next feature by OCLC is data check and report control. Data check is data or records in digital archive are protected by viruses and have a backup when have a disaster to the system digital archive and also make sure the record or data are healthy. The report control is all the archiving activities will report to immediately and make user know and up to date with the digital archive.

By all the features by OCLC, make we know and more understanding what is the digital archive.



Digital archives via the online in internet have many advantages. Firstly the question is why develop archive on the web. Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connect millions of business, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals. That show one billion people around the world use the internet daily for a variety of reasons like to communicate with and meet other people, access a wealth of information, news and research finding, shop for goods and services and any more can people doing by using the internet. For that reason, when using the internet via the web, people can use digital archive for their consultation, they do not go to the archive, but only sit on the chair and by fingers they can find and search the information by using digital archive. For an example, in the archives of U.S.A by established archives via internet like in this web sites, categorised information under important heading like Welcome, About Research Room, Record Management, Record Centre Programme, Federal Register, Grants, Exhibition Halls, Digital Class Room, Presidential Libraries and Search Site Index have been included. By all these services have in the web archive, user can easily to access and use all the services that archive provided for them. Its can reduce cost of money and also can reduce cost of time.


Other benefit and advantages using the digital archive or digital preservation is make the archived material like manuscript, letter and everything can be transformed to electronic record. By this way, can make all the record that have high value can be preserved in long term. Every body include the organisation, government institution and individual want to preserve their document for their future. These all document their want preserved because their want the record can be used for the future. From that, by using digital archive, they can make the document preserved in long term also can be back up when the original archived is destroyed.


Other benefit in the digital archive is the storage in their system database is reliability. Database system is a collection of data organized in a manner that allow access, retrieval, and use of data. With database system that maintaining properly, the records that held in digital archive not only can preserved for long term, easy to access, retrieval and can using the data easily but also the reliability of the security in that digital archive is more efficient. With database, the record in the digital archive is not easy to lost and the contain of the record is not easily be changed. With database system also can make easily to access and retrieve. Instead of trying some record by catalogue and shelves of list, by retrieve using database is easily and quickly. For an example Database FindStarOnline that was created by The Manheim City Archive, Germany in 2005. At the moment this database in general public can only access such metadata that does not run the risk of violating any data protection rights. The archive itself has of course the authorisation to access all records. In near future their will give the permission to the public and organisation to access their own record. From this example, show the database system is very important in digital library that make user are easily to access the digital archive.


Next benefit by using digital archive is can communicate and sharing the archived that held in the digital archive with another archive and institutional around the world. With this service by internet, digital archive can made user to expand their research by using the link that provide by digital archive, from that, user can sharing their knowledge and information with other archival institutional. For an example the archive of U.S.A have their relating link like with The National Archives of Australia, The National Archive of Canada and other things. With this services that provide can make the archive institution more productive and efficient to guide user to expand their research.



Digital archive is new methods to archive institutional around the world. Therefore digital archive also has a lot of problem and challenges for improved the digital archive services. Because digital archive is using via internet and computer technology have come out with the problem of user that not have the knowledge how to use the digital archive services. With this problem, can make the implication to digital archive to promote and expand their services, because user without knowledge will have the potential to not using the digital archive. Because of this problem, again OCLC come out with their guideline in their web pages to guide the user how to use the digital archive service.


The next problem is staffs no have so much the knowledge to manage the digital record. Based from Journal of The society of Archivists, vol.25, No 1, 2004, in the title “Archives in Digital Age” by Kimberly Barata. Author said in this journal “the model for archival education is breaking down. Existing university-based archives management course lack a practical element in managing electronic record. Students do not have opportunity to translate theory to practise, either on the course using laboratory facilities, or in the year preceding the commencement of their course, because such placement opportunity are extremely limited.” If we see the statement “student do not have opportunity to translate theory to practise” we can understand why the staff are not have so much the knowledge, because student after graduate and work in the archival institutional cannot using what their learn at University and that can be a problem to digital archive because the staff handling it no have so much knowledge in digitalization and computer technology. From that cases, staff must be give the continuous education regularly to make sure their skills are improved equal the technology that have in that time.


The next problem that digital archive face off is the security and the authentic of the material that held in the digital archive. As we know computer are have a risk from viruses, spy ware, hackers and other things. With not keeping the data that stored in the digital archive properly, can make the authentic of the data is not secure because hackers can move on the system and changed the contain of data. About viruses, as we know virus is very similar with the computer risk. Virus can make the data lost and not longer in the computer. From that cases, digital archive must ensure the security of data that held in their storage are very secure and have the authorial rights. For an example, by using the security like Anti viruses software, firewall and other security like password and so on , can make the digital archive more secure and the data that held in their storage are protected from computer disaster.


The next problem is the legal way for digital archive. As we know there are no have so much the legal way for digital archive. First thing why must have legal way to digital archive? The answer is for make sure the characteristic of the record are not changed and the original content, the authority of the record are not disturbed. For that reason, the government especially, must inquire properly this issue and made some legal way to make sure the intelligent properties, authentic and the right of the original record are secure.


The other problem is a cost for established digital archive. The problem is not only the cost of money but also cost of time. For cost of money to establish the digital archive is very expensive, for an example must pay lot of money to appoint the person or group that have master skill in the computer technology, other things is equipment like hardware and software to established digital archive are expensive. There give the challenger to the archivist to established the digital archive, they must have strong financial to do it. One of the challengers to establish digital archive is cost of time, to establish the digital archive , the archivist must have a lot of information in their hand and have a lot research to established it. From that to established one digital archive will spent a lot of time. For an example The Manheim City Archive, Germany. In their view in the Journal of Society of Archivist vol, 27, No 2, October 2006, 201-212. To established the digital archive they have to enquiry lot of information to established the digital archive, they also have a cooperation with university of Manheim to established the database.( for an example from end of years 1990s to 2005 to establish database FindStarOnline) From that example, we can look to established digital Archive is spent long time before the digital archive can fully operation.


Next is in the conflict between digital library and digital archive. Based from Journal of Archival Organization, Vol.2 (1/2)2004 by Streling Coleman,JR in the title “ The archival and library viewpoints of a collection in digital environment : Is there any room for compromise”. The author said in this article “in the rush to create these digital collection, academic librarians and archivist are coming into conflict over two fundamental questions that strike at the heart of collection development and collection management.” Based from this journal also First, these two institution, archivist and academic librarian worked as partner in meeting the information needs of their respective patrons as repositories for their respective research collections. However both of professions have struggled to define their respective social roles over past hundred years, a strong autonomous streak has developed between two former partners. The conflict is to define the meaning of collection in two entirely different way and they have different approaches toward arrangement of their respective collection. As we know archive held a older collection material that have the value, and library is keep the book, but library also keep the historical material or document, there show the conflict of collection in both institutions. Because of this different definition collection between archive and library, both of them keep the same materials (primary resource) and they digitalize the same material. From this journal also, author suggest the solution for digital archive and digital library. One solution is being to create a digital library and digital archives that would exist separately at a single at a single institution. This approach would allow librarians and archivist to build their respective digital repositories to their liking. Librarians could have a digital library that would provide it user with same ease of access as they enjoy with the print collection. Archivist also could have digital collection that would not arrange according to provenance, but also be reflective of the original order of the collection. One possible drawback to this separate arrangement may be an element of initial confusion that would come from a user who would have to cross between two different databases and interfaces to find the information they need. It is safe to say that most user prefer to go to one source or to access one catalog-on-line or print-to satisfy their information needs. While holding records between the two catalogs could be linked, there may be some difficulty in establishing this link if an archives and a library are using deferent forms of metadata and controlled vocabularies. Even with the benefit of a crosswalk that maps metadata between two different databases and set of shared controlled vocabularies, most new users that use the digital library or digital archive could find the process of locating the information they need.( adopted from sterling coleman, jr in The Archival And Library Viewpoints of a collection in a digital environment: Is there any room for compromise?)

The conclusion in this subtopic of the problem and challenge in digital archive, and the solution given, hoping that can help archivist to enhance the quality of digital archive.


Digital archive can help archival institution to more productive and efficient in this time and also for the future benefit. With we view all over the definition, the feature of digital archive, the advantages, the problem and challenger in digital archive with their solution. With view all subtopic above can conclude that digital archive is one of new technology methods for the archive, for make sure the record, document or data that have higher value can keep for long term and also digital archive have a more potential to promote people to using it because it easy to access and also can make people reducing their cost.


Barata.K .(2004).Archives in the digital age: Journal of the Society of Archivist., 25(1-2),63.

Brown.A.(2001).Archiving website: a practical guide for information management professional :Journal of the Australian Society of Archivists, 35 (1).98

Coleman.JR.S.(2004).The archival and library viewpoints of a collection in digital environment: Is there any room for compromise?: Journal of Archival Organization, 2 (1/2).103-115.

H.D.Singh.(2001).Electronic record keeping. Problem & prospect: The Indian Archives, XLIX (1-2) .45

Hodge.G. & Carrol.C.B.(1999). State of the art and the state of the practice: Digital Electronic Archiving.17.

Lyman.P.(2008).Archiving the world wide web. Retrieved February25,2008 from: http://www.benefit.of digital a national strategy for digital preservation issue in digital media archiving.

Nieb.U.,&.Stokert.H.(2006).One the way to a digital archive: The example of Manheim: Journal of the society of Archivist,l27( 2).201-212.

OCLC.(2008). Digital Archive At Glance: Features, Retrieved February 25, 2008 from: archive /digital archive at glance.

Richard.J.Cox.(1998). Access in the digital information age and the archival mission: Journal of the Society of Archivist, 19(1-2) 25.

Wikipedia.(2008).Digital preservation, Retrieved February25,2008 from: preservation.

Sunday, July 26, 2009

kepentingan pengurusan rekod

Oleh Khairul Izzuan B Ahmad

Rekod amat penting dalam kehidupan manusia dari kewujudan manusia pada zaman lampau sehinggalah sekarang. Rekod diwujudkan untuk membuktikan sesuatu perkara atau tindakan yang telah dilakukan. Sebagai contoh, pada setiap tamadun yang wujud amat mementingkan rekod dalam keberlangsungan tamadunnya, contoh paling mudah untuk difahami ialah lukisan yang dilukis pada dinding di piramid didalam tamadun Mesir, begitu juga di Tamadun Cina, telah diwujudkan satu pangkat dinamakan Pegawai rekod, tugas pegawai rekod ini adalah untuk mencatitkan segala tindakan yang telah dibuat oleh kerajaan cina itu sendiri, tamadun-tamadun lain ialah seperti didalam tamadun Islam juga mementingkan rekod itu sendiri,dan disebabkan pengurusan rekod yang efisien dan efektif, tamadun islam dapat dikembangkan ke seluruh dunia. Oleh itu, dapatlah dikatakan rekod adalah penting bagi semua tamadun.

Sekarang akan membincangkan apa itu kepentingan rekod kepada individu dan juga organisasi. Pertama sekali, kepentingan rekod adalah sebagai bahan bukti. Hal ini kerana dengan rekod yang diwujudkan dapat membuktikan segala tindakan yang telah dibuat. sebagai contoh, rekod kewangan dalam sesebuah organisasi akan dijadikan bahan bukti apabila sesuatu perkara berbangkit terjadi, contohnya, untuk mengaudit kewangan syarikat. segala rekod-rekod kewangan yang telah dibuat akan dirujuk untuk kerja-kerja audit tersebut. Melalui rekod kewangan yang sistematik dan efisien dapat membanteras penyalahgunaan kuasa didalam sesuatu organisasi, hal ini kerana melalui sistem rekod yang efektif dapat mengetahui siapa yang bertanggungjawab keatas sesuatu tindakan. Sebagai contoh yang lain ialah, rekod yang diwujudkan dapat megetahui keadaan sebenar masa lampau serta membuktikan sesuatu kejadian telah berlaku, maka dengan ini fakta sejarah dapat dibuat dengan lebih berkesan lagi. Salah satu isu yang terkini yang melibatkan rekod ialah status pulau batu puteh yang menjadi rebutan antara pihak Malaysia dan Singapura, disebabkan tiada rekod yang khusus bagi membuktikan kawasn tersebut milik Malaysia, menyebabkan Pulau Batu Puteh menjadi sebahagian dari Singapura.Maka, setiap individu dan organisasi sama ada kerajaan ataupun swasta haruslah mengambil iktibar bagi isu ini dan haruslah menguruskan rekod-rekod dengan betul dan mengikut standard pengurusan rekod itu sendiri.

Seterusnya, Kepentingan rekod yang kedua ialah sebagai bahan rujukan untuk membuat keputusan. Sesebuah organisasi memerlukan rekod untuk membantu mereka membuat keputusan dengan lebih berkesan lagi. sebagai contoh, dalam sesebuah syarikat akan membuat keputusan berdasarkan rekod yang telah sedia wujud, cuba kita bayangkan apa akan terjadi apabila pengurusan rekod tidak efisien dalam sesebuah organisasi, sudah tentu sesebuah organisasi akan menghadapi kesukaran dalam membuat keputusan. Maka tidak hairanlah sesebuah organisasi akan mengalami status muflis apabila rekod-rekod mereka tidak diuruskan dengan baik.

Seterusnya, kepentingan rekod yang ketiga ialah sebagai menjaga hak kepentingan sesebuah masyarakat. Maksud disini ialah rekod digunakan untuk menjaga kepentingan sesuatu masyrakat, keitimewaan masyarakat atau bangsa, lebih-lebih lagi untuk keberlangsungan sesebuah masyarakat tersebut. sebagai contoh, di negara Malaysia, sewaktu pengisytiharan merdeka, telah wujud dokumen yang menandakan kemerdekaan tanah melayu daripada penjajahan British. Dokuman yang diwujudkan itu merupakan kepentingan masyarakat terutamanya rakyat Malaysia itu sendiri. Maka dokumen tersebut mempunyai nilai yang sangat tinggi kepada negara dan rakyat Malaysia, dan disebabkan juga isi-isi kandungan dokumen tersebut merupakan rekod yang sangat penting bagi kedaulatan negara dan rakyatnya. Oleh itu, bolehlah dikatakan rekod adalah penting bagi menjamin kepentingan sesebuah masyarakat.

Akhir sekali, kepentingan rekod ialah menjamin kedaulatan sesebuah undang-undang didalam sesebuah negara. Perlembagaan yang dibuat adalah untuk menjamin keluhuran undang-undang bagi sesebuah negara. Sesuatu badan kehakiman tidak dapat membuat keputusan jika tiada rekod yang mengatakan sesutu tindakan itu adalah betul atau salah (akta) didalam perlembagaan sesebuah negara. Maka dengan wujudnya rekod dan pengurusan rekod yang cekap, sesuatu tindakan tidak dapat dibuat dengan berkesan.

Secara kesimpulannya, Rekod adalah penting bagi sesiapa sahaja, tanpa rekod sesuatu tindakan tidak dapat dibuktikan, tanpa rekod hak masyarakat tidak akan terjamin, tanpa rekod juga undag-undang tidak dapat dilakukan atau diputuskan denga lebih berkesan lagi, dan tanpa rekod sesuatu organisasi tidak dapat membuat keputusan dengan tepat, berkesan dan cepat dan membolehkan organisasi mencapai status muflis. Oleh itu, setiap individu dan organisasi haruslah menyedari kepentingan rekod dan menguruskan rekod-rekodnya secara cekap dan berkesan, maka dengan tindakan ini, dapat membolehkan sesuatu organisasi menjadi lebih cekap dan berkesan dalam segala tindakan yang dibuat dan juga dapat menyelamatkan kedaulatan negara.

Saturday, July 18, 2009

I push myself

I push myself to be great.. I push myself to be a good son, to be a great student, to become an excellent employee in future, to be the successful leader of my community..and to become a good husband and father, just like my dad..

Thanks everybody who takes care of me..

Dont let anybody ever let you down..