Monday, September 14, 2009

Ramadhan semakin ke penghujung

Setelah hampir sebulan kita berpuasa, sedar tak sedar Ramadhan semakin ke penghujungnya, pelbagai pengalaman kita dapat rasai di bulan yang mulia ini, semoga pengalaman itu dapat dijadikan pengajaran dan pedoman kepada kita.

Setelah Ramadhan, tibalah Syawal yang mulia, menandakan hari kemenangan kepada umat Islam setelah sebulan berlapar menahan makan dan nafsu, bulan Syawal bukanlah tanda untuk kita melakukan perakara yang mungkar, tetapi sebagai permulaan untuk kita jadi lebih baik dan cemerlang lagi.

Sempena ini, saya ingin mengucapkan ribuan ampun dan maaf sekiranya blog saya menyingung perasaan mana-mana pihak, dan juga diharapkan anda semua dapat meningkatkan ilmu dan juga maklumat melalui blog ini, yang buruk datang dari saya dan yang baik adalah datang dari Allah S.w.T....


Khairul Izzuan bin Ahmad

Saturday, September 12, 2009

Article Review : Looking at archives in art.

By Khairul Izzuan bin Ahmad

The author for this article is Barbara L.Craig and James M.Otoole. In this article has view about the archival material in art form that must be preserved permanent for long term period.

In the introduction of this article, authors have been describing the important of preservation of archival materials. The archival materials not only just a document like file, government document, official document and so on but picture or images also can be a archives or archival materials. According to what has describe by authors, the picture or images also have a value and from the picture or images show the impression of artist who create it, it will have a meaning of history. Beside that, images or picture have a value of history like from the picture that has been created for previous time, the historian will know what kind of material used to makes the picture and that will show the technologies for that time.

In this article also authors has describe and examine the selection of Britain and America portrait and genre painting were created and importance of the record depicted. Author also describe that archivist can use this iconography perception of record by artist, sitter, and viewer. In this article also have the example of picture that has been preserved by archive, for an example, the picture of Collyer, tromple Ioel with writing material, in Courtesy of Victoria and Albert Museum of London. This picture notice keeper use to hold the object of desk, paper waiting to be read or responded to, and various equipment for writing, including quill, quill cutter, sealing wax and parchment stretcher. This picture have their own meaning that makes their be preserved.

As conclusion, author are realize about picture also can be the archival materials, and from the value of historical of picture, therefore must be preserved for national heritage for next generation.


The American Archivist/Vol 63/No 1/ Spring/Summer 2000/ pg 97 -110

Article Review : The British effort of safeguarding the land records of Palestine 1948

By Khairul Izzuan Bin Ahmad

The author of this article is Dov Gavish from Hebrew university of Jerusalem. This article view about action that have been taken by Britain for safe the important record and archival material in Palestine 1948.

In the introduction of this article author has describe the history about the Palestine. Palestine in historical event has been rules by territory of Ottoman empire, Britain, Egypt, and also Palestine government itself in Gaza and Jericho. In 1928 Britain has been as ruler of Palestine until 1948 before their give some land of Palestine to Israel to make a country. By that, author also said before Britain leave the Palestine, they must arrange their document of administration of Palestine as good as possible, especially about the land record that have been as Issues between Arabian especially Palestine people and Israel that want established the country. These land records are important to the important both of Palestine and Israel. Author also have mentioned about the important document about Ottoman Empire and the document also including the land record for Palestine territory. This document can describe as archival material that have a value for country and both of Palestine and Israel want to use it for claim their territory. Beside that the document about Britain administrative also important as a archival material that will be a reference for new government rules the Palestine and also rules the Israel country.

By this way, author has describe Britain has make a several decision, the decision for safeguard these kind of archival materials is makes the inventory of land records, photography program that include photographing the document which is file that are important. One of the important thing that authors has describe according to effort of Britain is photographing program like photographing the document that important. For photographing the document, they start of every roll of film and the end of every land register book, the film will be numbered and all the photographed material will be indexed. When the filming was completed, the film will transfer to England and will keep by Crown Agent. By this way the land records will keep safe and also can avoid for misused of the record from irresponsible body or person.

As conclusion, Author has conclude that, the archival material like land record for Palestine is important both of Palestine government and also Israel for their land boundaries, by the effort that have been makes by Britain before leave land of Palestine in 1948, to makes sure this land record and also their administrative record are preserved for avoiding the misused of power or records.

Archives/Volume 22,No 95/October 1996/pg 107-120

Article Review : Using Archival materials effectively in museum exhibition

By Khairul Izzuan Bin Ahmad

There are three authors that have been created for this article, the authors is Nancy Allyn, Shawn Autbiz and Gaiil F.Stern. This article has discuss about the effective way to using archival materials for the exhibition in Museum.

In this article have said most American conserving institutions, including many museums, continue to realize the potentional of incorporating archival materials in exhibition. By that, there are realize the important of archival materials for keep and preserve for make people know the history and also give a knowledge for people about previous important event through archival material that has exhibit In this article also author describe the definition about what are archival material, archival material can be define as such as materials including organizational records, personal papers such as letter, newspaper, treaties, governmental records, picture material such as architectural drawing, cartoon, poster, advertisements, maps, photographs and calendar, put simply are sheet of paper with some type of illustration, symbol, or writing on them. All of this material conveys information about historical event, person or institution.

After authors give the definition about definition of archival materials, authors has describe that the fundamental mission of any exhibition is to make institution holding accessible and available to the public. By this accessible for public purpose, there are fulfilling the obligation to help all individuals better understand their cultural heritage. Authors also describe through exhibition which can provide a visual counterpart to, and relief from textbooks, scholarly publication and other writing. In other subject in way of make the effective of exhibition in museum, author was describe how to make the exhibition more interestingly and can attract people to see and understand the archival materials that exhibit to public. The one ways is make the exhibition themes that historical themes can range from choosing a historical event of celebrating a significant anniversary. Beside that, authors also has describe that another techniques for make a people attraction, the techniques is exhibiting photograph to juxtapose black and white colour photos of same object. Another way for make exhibition more interestingly is choose materials that are exhibit able from a conservation standpoint and have strong documentary value as well visual impacts. The last way or techniques for makes exhibition of archival material look interestingly is staff must carefully selected manuscript exhibited in conjunction with strong visual images can often make a greater impact than group documents with accompanying text, because of their visual impact and familiarity to most people, some archival materials provides strong subject for exhibition by themselves.

As conclusion for this article, authors was concluded that exhibition are the one way for make people realize and aware about the historical, the exhibition can makes people more understand about the history and also can gain their knowledge, by using effective techniques for exhibition, can attract many people to join the exhibition and also can make young generation know the history. By exhibition also can be effective means of teaching visitor what museum curators, archivist and libraries do, how they do and so on.


American Archivist/Summer 1987/vol 50/No 3/ page 402-404

Friday, September 11, 2009

Archival appraisal and sound archives (Part 1)

Archival appraisal and sound archives

By Helen P Harrison

2.1 Before embarking on a discussion of the appraisal of sound recordings and other audiovisual materials which contain sound as an integral part, it will be useful to examine the nature of sound archives and implications of archival theory of appraisal. For the nature and contents of certain archives, especially audiovisual archives, will often determine and influence application of the principles of appraisal and selection which will be necessary and used. Although this study will concentrate upon sound recordings there is a marked tendency for the audiovisual materials of the moving image that is, film and video, and sound recordings to be acquired by the same archival repository, especially in view of the increasing convergence of the technologies.

2.2 Audiovisual materials can be housed together or they may be maintained separately, but as with most archive materials the lines of demarcation between audiovisual materials are often not distinct. Film has sound on it, magnetic recording may have sound alone, music and effects, or it may have sound and images, or it may be a purely visual record.

2.2.1 Converging technology is also having a marked influence on the trend to collect a variety of audiovisual materials rather than one type alone. This is especially evident with magnetic recording and with the disc technologies of compact disc and videodisc, which can be used more and more interchangeably to carry sound and visual images, either still or moving.


Adopted from UNESCO

Maintaining Audiovisual Record (Part 2) Exterior condition

By Khairul Izzuan Bin Ahmad


The exterior walls of most modern facilities are generally made from bricks or concrete. Some facilities have single walls and others have double walls with a cavity in between. Given the right circumstances, brick and concrete can both be porous and allows the passage of moisture from the outside, where humidity levels are generally higher, into the storage areas.

So, the walls should be designed and built in such a way as to minimize the potential for external environmental conditions to influence the conditions we are maintaining in our storage areas. Particular attention should be given to ensuring that all archival storage areas are well insulated and sealed. Sealed vapor barriers between the walls, or the inclusion of insulation tightly fitted between wall studs and frames, or the use of sandwich panels (similar to materials used in cool rooms) is suggested.

All wall that surround record storage areas should be fire rated. The numbers are in minutes and, in order, we refer to an item’s :

Structural adequacy- the item will not collapse in that time
Integrity-the item will not fail in that time such as the fire will not burn through.
Insulation-the ability of the item to withstand heat, both conducted and radiant.

Fire rating for walls and doors have not, however, been standardized. British standard 5454-2000 Storage and exhibition of archival documents recommend a four-hour rating. ISO 11799-2003, information and documentation storage requirements for archive and library materials, recommend two hour.

Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Audio Visual Record

By Khairul Izzuan Bin Ahmad

What is an Audiovisual Record?

An audio visual record is defined as a document that contains government information in the form of moving images and/or sound.

In many ways, audio visual records are distinctly different from traditional texture sources of government information. For an example, although the printed page can preserve the words of minister's speech, a videotape will reveal what was actually said, including the speaker's intonation, appearance, facial expressions and gestures.Audiovisual records are particularly suited to recreating events, they can show us people, places and things we could no experience firsthand. Motion picture films, magnetic tapes and discs are also designed to reach a mass audience and can be powerful communication tools.

Managing Audio-visual Records in the Government of Canada

Maintaining Audiovisual Record (Part 1)

By Khairul Izzuan bin Ahmad

Storage Condition

Poor storage condition for audiovisual records impede their preservation. High relative humidity (for an example, above 60 percent) encourages the growth of mold and other fungi on film based materials, whose binders are derived from organic compounds. High relative humidity also causes oxidation of silver content in film and metal compounds in audio and video tape. In addition, it causes deterioration of the oxide coating on magnetic tapes, leading to clogged magnetic tape heads and scratched tapes. Warm temperatures tend to accelerate undesirable chemical and physical changes in audiovisual records (including x-ray photographs), such as shrinkage of film base and emulsion, and fading of colour film images.

In recent years, preservation have become increasingly concerned about the longevity of a major class of safety film composed of cellulose-acetate. Several scientific studies have independently shown how adverse storage condition create a form of hydrolysis in acetate-based film that develops free and the emission of acetic gas, leading to the total degradation of the film.Identified as the "Vinegar Syndrome", this destructive chemical process potentially affects all forms of acetate film.

Polyester-based film, widely used for sheet film since the 1970s, is much less prone to self-destructive tendencies because the base resist chemical and physical changes, although the emulsion is still vulnerable to damage from excessive heat, humidity, and harmful gases.Nonetheless, when there is a choice such as in motion picture stocks, polyester is preferable to cellulose triacetate because of its superior long-term stability.

The fading of colour film images is also of great concern. colour dyes, made of organic materials, are not permanent. Heat, humidity and exposure to light accelerate colour dye fading, resulting in the discoloured images that may be found in many older collections. Cold storage below freezing combined with low relative humidity effectively retards colour fading.

Pollutant gases in urban or suburaban environments are potetntially harmful as are off-gases from newly painted rooms, new furniture or flooring, and chemical storages areas.Agencies should store aidiovisual records in areas not subject to gases and fumes.

Providing proper storage conditions for audiovisuals materials is a materials is a complex problem, one that probably cannot be fully solved in the facilities available to most agencies. Nevertheless, audiovisual records (including x-ray photographs) should not be stored where the temparature exceeds 72 degrees Fahreinheit and the realtive humidity is higher than 50 percents. Even cooler and drier storage conditions are desirable to increase the life expentency of audiovisual records. The storage environment should be cool and dry and relatively free from harmful gases.


Adopted The National Archives

7 Wasiat Raja-Raja Melayu

wasiat Raja-Raja Melayu dan pemimpin-pemimpin yang diperbuat semas merdeka pada tanggal 31 Ogos 1957.

"Kami wasiatkan kepada zuriat keturunan kami 7 perkara yang mana jika kamu bersatu padu dan berpegang teguh kepadanya, selama itulah kamu akan aman damai dan selamat sejahtera"

7 perkara itu adalah:


"Kami namakan dan kami panggil akan dia, bumi yang kamu pijak dan langit yang kamu junjung, PERSEKUTUAN TANAH MELAYU (sekarang dikenali sebagai MALAYSIA)"


"Kami isytiharkan dan kami simpan untuk kamu dan kami benarkan kamu isytihar dan simpan untuk anak cucu kamu, selain gunung-ganang, tasik dan hutan simpan, TANAH SIMPANAN MELAYU sehingga nisbah 50%, selebihnya kamu rebutlah bersama kaum-kaum lain."


"Bagi menjaga kamu dan bagi melindungi anak cucu kamu serta harta hak milik kamu, kami telah tubuhkan REJIMEN ASKAR MELAYU selain untuk membanteras kekacauan dalam negara dan ancaman dari luar negara."


"Kami kekalkan dan kami jamin kerajaan dan kedaulatan RAJA-RAJA MELAYU memerintah negara ini."


"Kami isytiharkan ISLAM agama persekutuan."


"Kami tetapkan bahasa kebangsaan ialah BAHASA MELAYU".


"Kami amanahkan dan kami pertanggungjawabkan kepada Raja-Raja Melayu untuk melindungi KEDUDUKAN ISTIMEWA ORANG MELAYU dan KEPENTINGAN SAH KAUM-KAUM LAIN. (kemudian ditambah kedudukan istimewa anak negeri Sabah dan Sarawak)."